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Call for Written Submissions

On 8 January 2024, the Gender Apartheid Inquiry issued a call for written submissions.

Call for written submissions

The Inquiry invites anyone with relevant knowledge to submit written responses to the below questions. Please respond only to questions relating to your expertise or experience.

The responses are to be sent via email to Dr Ewelina Ochab:

The deadline for responses is 31 January 2024. 


The situation of women and girls in Iran and Afghanistan

  • What is the current situation? What are the main challenges or limitations? How are women and girls being denied access to public services, legal services, and other aspects of daily life?

  • How has this situation been changing over recent years or months and why? Is it an escalating crisis?

  • What is the future of women and girls in these countries?

Gender persecution and gender apartheid

  • Can the situation of women and girls in Iran and Afghanistan be classified as gender persecution (as per Article 7(1)(h) of the Rome Statute)?

  • What is gender apartheid and how does it differ from gender persecution?

  • Is gender apartheid better suited to describe the nature and severity of the situation of women and girls in Iran and Afghanistan?

  • How could gender apartheid become an international crime, within the existing treaties or changes would need to be made?

Recommendations for States

  • What is needed to help women and girls in Iran and Afghanistan in the short term and long term?

  • What State responses, whether alone or in collaboration with others, should be undertaken?


  • Are there any other countries where women and girls experience a similar situation as in Iran or Afghanistan or countries where there is a high risk that women would experience a similar situation?

  • Any other comments?

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